BAKU STATE UNIVERSITY

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SANTA BARBARA

USA NATIONAL CENTER FOR GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION AND ANALYSIS(NCGIA)


INTERNATIONAL STUDENT CONFERENCE

ON THE THEME:

CALIFORNIA STATE (USA) AND AZERBAIJAN:

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ECOLOGICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL PROBLEMS OF THE NATURE AND ECONOMY

18-20 December, 1996

Baku State University, Geographical Faculty, room 300

ABSTRACTS

 

BAKU - 1996

Organizing Committee

Chairman of conference:

Dr. Efendiev Vusat Dean of Geographical Faculty ,

Baku State University

Conference Secretary: Mr. Nabiyev Alipasha Alibek

Teacher of Department Physical Geography, Faculty of Geography

Advisors:

1.From USA Dr. Prof.MICHAEL FRANK GOODCHILD

Chair of Executive Committee NCGIA(California , Santa Barbara)

Department of Geography, University of California, Santa Barbara
3611 Ellison Hall ,Santa Barbara, CA 93106-4060

Office TEL: (805)893-8049 ,Fax: (805)893-3146

Email: good@ncgia.ucsb.edu

2.From Azerbaijan Dr. PROF. MUSEIBOV MUSEIB

Chief of Department of Physical Geography,

Geographical Faculty, Baku State University

Office : (99412) 390419

Fax: (99412)983376

Head of student group from California State(USA)

Dr.Stuart C. Aitken

Department of Geography, San Diego State University

San Diego, CA 92182

E-MAIL: saitken@sciences.sdsu.edu

PHONE: (619) 594-6498 (office)

FAX: (619) 594-4938

Reports of Californian Students

PUBLIC SPACES OF THE URBAN LANDSCAPE IN CALIFORNIA AND AZERBAIJAN.

Kristin Lovelace

University of California, Santa Barbara

recently graduated with M. A. in Geography, continuing on

Ph.D. in Psychology

E-mail address:

lovelace@geog.ucsb.edu

or lovelace@psych.ucsb.edu

Abstract

The human elements of geography are as important as the physicalons, when investigating the similarity of two places. The climates of California and Azerbaijan have many similarities, including mountains ,agricultural valleys, a border on a body of water, and a common problem with heat and drought. How do people living in the cities of these two countries use their urban environments? How do the architecture and planning of cities that are often very old (such as Baku) or that are very new (such as Los Angeles) support public or social activities of theirresidents? How have the cities in these two places expressed aspects of both the local culture and geography in their public spaces?

What affects the public urban places in California and Azerbaijan,two places separated by half the world? Factors such as the role oftraditional architectural forms, cultural differences in appropriate forums for social interaction, freedom of speech, annual climatic changes, etc.are all relevant to the kinds of interaction that public urban places can and will foster. I am interested to compare forums of public interaction in two areas which are climatically, economically, and situationally similar in many ways, yet have vastly different cultures.

Short statement of the value to you that participation in this conferenceand trip would have:*Participation in the trip*

As a human geographer, observing and understanding more about people and environments all over the world is a fascinating and important opportunity. I have traveled some in Western Europe, and a bit inSoutheast Asia, but I have never been lucky enough to get to any of the central Asian or transcaucasian countries, including those like Azerbaijan which are ancient, but newly dealing with freedom from outside control. In addition, I would hope to make contacts with human geographers at Baku

State University (or elsewhere in Azerbaijan) with whom I might have acontinuing research connection for cross-cultural research.*Participation in the conference*

One of my enduring interests is cross-cultural differences (orsimilarities) in the area of human-environment relations, especially spatial cognition and preferences in the built environment. Research suggests that there is are strong cultural components to spatial usage and abilities, in large part the due to socially constrained opportunities and training available to various members of a society. Participation in this conference would allow me an opportunity to make contacts for futurecross-cultural research, to learn about what sort of human-environment relations research has been done in Azerbaijan, as well as to share the findings from my research.

In the broader sense, spatial cognition research seeks to find the universals, as well as the cultural differences, in spatial ability andpotentials. Learning about research on topics of spatial use and choice inother cultures can increase the knowledge necessary for theorizing aboutwhat is universal and what is culturally affected in spatial abilities.

PREDICTIVE SOIL MAPPING IN TIJUANA RIVER WATERSHED

David Askov

San Diego State University

Master's student

Email: askov@rohan.sdsu.edu

 

Abstract:

The Tijuana River Watershed Management Project is developing a GIS database of environmental features within the 440,000 hectare Tijuana River Watershed, which spans 76 kilometers of the US- M=E9xico border. One of the problems faced is integrating maps from many different sources, often mapped using different scales and classification systems, as were the soil maps from the US and Mexico. The US soils were mapped at 1:24,000 scale using the 7th Approximation soil taxonomy while the Mexican soils were mapped at 1:250,000 in the less detailed FAO/UNESCO taxonomy. The goal of this thesis research is to increase the cross-border compatibility of the watershed's GIS soil layer. This will be achieved by constructing a logit regression model to predict a location's soil classification in the US, where the digitized soil maps will be sampled as the dependent variable of the model. This model will then be applied to create a map of the soils ofthe Mexican portion of the Tijuana River Watershed. Logit regression modeling is particularly useful for constructing models that use categorical data for both the independent and dependent variables, as is the case in this research.

EARTHQUAKES AND EARTHQUAKE RELATED HAZARDS IN AZERBAIJAN

James R. Hotchkiss

University of CSU Chico

B.A in geography from CSU Long Beach in Spring 1997, to begin work on an MA in geography at CSU Chico in the Fall.

Email: JnTBaker@aol.com

Abstract:

Azerbaijan is located in a mountainous belt that streteches across the Eurasian landmass and is known as the Alpine-Caucasian-Himalayan system.Earthquake activity in this region is very high. In 1988 a devastatingmagnitude 6.7 earthquake struck neighboring Armenia. This quake killed 35,000 people, injured 130,000 more, made at least 250,000 people homeless, and caused $14-15 billion in damage. Most of the casualties and damage canbe attributed to poorly constructed high rise apartments, and poor emergency response by the Soviet government.

Assuming that Azerbaijan would have suffered a similar fate from anearthquake while under Soviet rule, we can inquire about earthquakepreparedness in Azerbaijan today. If a magnitude 6-7 earthquake struck in Azerbaijan today, how would the nation fare? Better or worse than theArmenians in 1988? In order to fully explore this topic several other questions must be answered, they are:

Where in Azerbaijan are major earthquakes likely to occur?

What cultural features such as major cities, or infrastructure arelocated in the danger zone(s)?

What kind of primary and secondary damage could we expect?

Would earthquakes in neighboring countries cause any significant damage to areas in Azerbaijan?

What are the social, political, and economic implications of a major earthquake?

Have there been any improvements in building design, and emergencyresponse capability since independence in 1991?

What could Azerbaijan learn from California's earthquake history andSeismic Safety Initiative?

Value: In my graduate studies, my primary research topic will be natural hazards and emergency management at the Center for Hazards Research at CSUC. Doing research on Azerbaijan, just to be able to write this proposal hasbeen fun and exciting. I have had to rely on obscure sources such as theTectonic Map of the Soviet Union, and seismic maps in French. This wasespecially challenging to me since I can not speak Russian or French. Continuing with this paper will be a tremendous opportuity for me to increase my knowledge of seismic hazards, hazards mitigation, and the cultural and physical geography of a remote region. Additionally this paper would give me valuabe experience in the practical application of knowledge

to help solve real world problems.

TRACKING INVASIVE AND EXOTIC PLANTS IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA WETLANDS USING LOW-COST HIGH RESOLUTION DIGITAL MULTISPECTRAL IMAGERY

Bruce Nyden

San Diego State University Geography Department

Master's student (course work completed, working on thesis) (also

employed as a research associate in the Biology Department--9

month pos.

Email: bnyden@perl.sdsu.edu

ABSTRACT

The ADAR 5500 (Positive Systems, Inc.) high resolution digital imagingsystem (1m per pixel) was used for a near anniversary date comparison ofland cover change that has resulted from encroachment by an invasive plantspecies, Typha domingensis, at Los Pe=F1asquitos Lagoon, Del Mar, CA. Threespectral bands were used (520-600nm green, 610-690nm red and 780-1000nmNIR) from October 16, 1994 and September 24, 1995 ADAR flights. Aclassified image was created for each of the two dates and a multi-datechange image was created to detect and map conversion of salt marsh tocattail-dominated freshwater marsh. A survey grade kinematic GPS (+ 5cm)was used to generate ground reference data. The results indicate that the dense, well established stands of cattail can be detected more readily than the early stages of conversion to cattail marsh because of the sparsecanopy and background noise. Salt marsh vegetation in the understory ofthe cattail canopy and standing water contributed to the confusion of low density patches. The combined accuracy for cattails was relatively low.

In the past 100 years California has lost over 90% (Dahl 1990) of itsnatural wetlands, primarily due to agriculture and urbanization. Thewetlands that remain provide refuge for endangered species as well ashabitat corridors for migrating birds and other species. Yet like manywetlands around the world changes, in hydrology are leading to encroachmentby aggressive species of cattail, Typha spp. (Beare and Zedler 1987, Zedleret al. 1990).

Satellite remote sensing has been used successfully for inventory,monitoring and managing the expansive wetlands of the East and Gulf Coastsof the U.S. It has proven to be both an economical and timely way to monitor land cover use and detect change. The coarse resolution (10m-1.1kmpixel size) of satellite images, however, does not provide sufficient detail for detection of small areal changes or for mapping and monitoring small coastal wetlands. Even when the patches occupied by invasive species are small, their impact can be large if it occurs in a small isolated refuge such as a coastal wetland in southern California. Over 89% of these are less than 400 hectares in size (California Coastal Conservancy 1983,unpubl.).

Los Pe=F1asquitos Lagoon is a small, 257 hectare, (Los Pe=F1asquitos Lagoon Foundation/California Coastal Conservancy 1985) salt marsh located betweenDel Mar and La Jolla, CA. It is predominantly pickleweed (Salicorniavirginica), a preferred nesting habitat for the endangered Belding's Savanna sparrow (White 1986). Over the past three decades there has been an alarming increase of cattail cover, largely at the expense of pickleweedmarsh (Arnett 1974, Williams 1995). Precipitation that previously percolated into the soil over a wide undeveloped area, now collects as street run-off from developed areas and empties into the estuary via storm drains. Importedwater for irrigation of lawns and landscaping further aggravates the runoff problem. This reduces the soil salinity in the salt marsh and provides a foothold for freshwater plant species to invade.

Jensen et. al (1993) were able to identify and map Typha domingensisoccurrences around freshwater lakes at Savannah River. They used seasonal phenological differences in SPOT panchromatic data and to separate cattail from waterlilies. At Los Pe=F1asquitos Lagoon, established stands form densecanopies in wet, salt-free soils, but there are no lakes and only seasonalflooding of the salt pannes. Newly established cattail stands are patchy and are dominated by salt marsh vegetation.

For this study multispectral digital data with 1m per pixel resolution fromthe Airborne Data Acquisition and Registration (ADAR) System 5500 were sedto map vegetative cover at Los Pe=F1asquitos Lagoon, Del Mar, CA. (Figure= 1).

The ADAR system (Positive Systems, Whitefish, Montana) was designed for alight aircraft platform. It consists of four digital cameras aligned sothat each images the same FOV (field of view) simultaneously. Each camerais equipped with a with a different bandpass filter (Table 1). The imagesthe images (1000m x 1500m pixels) are recorded onboard the aircraft via a portable Sun workstation computer.

The objective of this study was to determine the reliability of using ADARhigh resolution multispectral digital imagery to identify and measure small but significant land cover changes at Los Pe=F1asquitos Lagoon over a one-year period. The land cover changes of interest were the conversion ofsalt marsh to cattail dominated freshwater vegetation and the conversion ofsalt marsh to bare soil as a result of sewer line repairs, sewer pumpstation construction and road expansion adjacent to the wetland.

WHY I WANT TO GO:

I am very interested in coastal and marine environmental issues in generaland have been a panel member of a multi-agency/stakeholder commitee todevelop a comprehensive monitoring plan for San Diego Bay. I hope to beable to share my insights on the panel's successes and obstacles with Azerbaijanian students. Through recent coursework and discussions with researchers at SDSU, I have become interested in the environmental issues of the areas surrounding the new States of the the former USSR and the multi-national/multi-agency approaches that will be needed to solve them.

SNOW AND CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE CALIFORNIA SIERRA NEVADA MOUNTAINS

Tammy Johnson

University of California, Santa Barbara

I'm finishing my Masters this summer and continuing on

with my Ph.D.

Email address : tams@icess.ucsb.edu

Abstract

Mountainous areas, particularly in the western U.S., provide a largefraction of the fresh water supply. This reserve is possibly vulnerable tochanges in climate. Regional precipitation patterns, especially snow,which is a sensitive indicator of change, are predicted to vary with globalwarming. This study uses a statistical model to link snow water equivalent (SWE) measurements over a 65 year time series to analyze the snow accumulation trends in the Sierra Nevada.

We found that snowmelt timing has recently been occurring earlier in themid-elevations while the maximum amount of seasonal SWE is not changing.However, the snow fractions (monthly SWE/season maximum SWE) are hiftingboth by month and elevation. The monthly SWE fractions are decreasing, which indicate that snow is accumulating later and melting earlier in the Sierra Nevada. Since values are given for the first of the month, thissuggests less snow in January and February, yet more in March, as reflected in the April 1 values. The decrease of SWE fractions on May 1 average to a23% loss over the last 65 years, while June 1 fractions are down 32%, with greater losses in the higher elevations.

- Short statement of the value to you Establishing contacts with researchers in various institutions is valuable for all scientists, including myself. I would like to learn how people in Azerbaijan approach science. That interest includes what they deem worthy of investigation and how they go about their analyses.

COMPARISON OF THE WATER ENVIRONMENTS OF THE CASPIAN AND SALTON SEAS

Claudia Manrique

California State University Long Beach

second year graduate student,

Email: cmanrique@aol.com

Abstract

The paper explores the environmental impacts of human activities on both the Caspian and Salton Seas. The Caspian Sea covers 143,000 square miles and borders the countries of Azerbaijan, Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Iran. The Caspian Sea is a prized resource due to its large oil reserves and has become highly polluted by petroleum spills. Other sources of pollution include waste water from bordering cities and pesticides from agricultural run off. Rising water level of the Caspian and

over fishing are other problems the area faces. Southern California's SaltonSea covers 380 square miles and has experienced increased salinity andpollution from pesticides used by farmers from both the United States andMexico. Fish and bird poisonings have dramatically affected the migratorybirds who use this area as a major stopping point and have diminished thearea's potential for recreational activities. This discussion will focus onthe common problems shared by both the Caspian and Salton Seas face and the strategies that both regions may use to promote sustainable development and environmental conservation.

 

REPORTS OF AZERBAIJAN STUDENTS

ESPECIALLY PROTECTED NATURAL OBJECTS OF AZERBAYJAN AND CALIFORNIYA STATE, USA AND THE PROBLEMS OF THEIR UTILIZATION FOR THEIR PURPOSE OF REST AND TOURIZM.

Guliev Fuad

thidr year graduate student of the Faculty of Geography

Baku State University, Azerbaijan

Abstract

In our century of violent development it has become hard to preserve anature untouched and unsubject to antropogen pressure.Irrational fellingof forest masses, pollution of hydrosfere and atmosfere, as well as destroymentof harmony , which nature created so carefully. It is possible to say ,that in any measure the person has found a exit from this situation .At the end of 19th and beginning of 20th centuries it have begun to be created the first protected territory ,which are one of main methods of restoretion of balancebetween the person and environment and only means of keeping of the uniquenature's monuments . In Azerbayjan the first conservated territory has arisen in 1925 - it was Geygel state reserve.With those times are created 14 statereserves , 18 reservations and 2 state hunting's economies.More early in 1872 in USA opened the first nat'l park in the world .What do state reserve differ from nat'l park .

State reserve is maximum category of natural protection .Any activity ,which is broken natural complexes or threatened to the conditions of natural objects, is prohibited as on territory of reserve , as in established one around them .On their territory is forbidden a constuction of industry andagricultural factory , prospecting and output of useful minerals ,felling a wood , haymaking , collection of plants , to pasture cattle, hunting, fishing, use of fertilizer and poisonous chemical substance, acclimatization of the animals and the plants , all forins of tourism and rest of the population and so on .They are intended exclusively for solving scientific and sciense-technical problems.

Unlike state reserves nat'l parks are reasonable large territories, where nature conversation is combined with recreation .The main task nat'l park is preservation and support of natural ecological,gemorphological and sensnous values is given territory. Recreational measure are subordinated to this main task. Nat'l parks have

special administrative managments to carry out landusing.Half-closed Nat'l parks are not admitted on a large part of territory on such parks.Here protect valuable landscapes,ecosystems,separate Kinds of plants and animalsa open part is marked specially fot tourists.Is equiped elevating road,excursion paths and ways,platforms for a watching,camping,hotel,restourants. In last time sphere of the houshold service it strives to bear for limits of park.Half-closed nat'l park completely is drown from commercial use. It is admitted a regulation of natural components.Reservations and nat'l parks are tempting by virtue of attractive natural conditions for organizez

of tourism.For example, millions of people annually fill in Yosemite,Kings Kanyon ,seqvoya, General-grant-grow nat'l parks,wherethey admire with falls,alpine view the ancient trees and lakes.

All tourists like to watch the relir forest of sequoya Gigantea in Yosemite park.With thousands of hotel-rooms and campground sites,restroaunts,supermarkets,liquor stores,gift shops and even ajail Yosemite valley has become the textbook example of overdeveloped parkland.Amozing vistas,toweringtrees,arich fauna and idyllir meadouss and pools have combined to lend Yosemite a mystic quality.

High recreational potential of a zone is evident during examatation of territorial recrational complex of Azerbayjan Unfortunately,the touristic measure are conducted disorgonizely .Thousands of inhabitants of Azerbayjan seek in Geygel reserve in summer days of rest . Tourists trample down a grass, make dirty a envioronment feel trees . Similar picture is possible observed and in our others nat'l reservations.

The increase of attendance of reservation without good organization with protected measure can lead to disturbance of natural balance .

Reservation is possible to use for excursion purposes , specially preparing the vizitors .The state reserve are the most favourable for creation of nat'l parks in Yalama Khudat , Gobustan and Geygel districts.Functional zone of parcs precede to its creation, which costs to deside worth will under the circuit:

1.Especially variable territory for protection of biotypes, as well as for conduction of scientific researches. He visit by storage persons strictly is regulated.

2. Zones of extensive-recreation development, means for main tenance ecological equitibrium in a landscape and quiet dialogue of the people about nature. Pedestrian tourism is admitted.

3. Buffer zone meant for maintenance intensive recreation and placing of the

material tourizm base.

For the broads of buffer zone on main porch to nat`l park to develop with while " entrance of centre" , ensurzing maximum level of comfort.

Here, situated hotels, tourizm bases, models, house of rest, campings, as well as excursion bureau, point of hire , administration of park. So, the life has moved to the necessary to regulate a reserve business, to creation of parks and use them for rest and tourism.

THE COMPORATIVE ANALYSIS AND THE PROBLEMS OF INTRODUCTION THE VEGETATION OF AZERBAIJAN AND CALIFORNIA STATE,USA

Kokashvili Ira

third year graduate student of the Faculty of Geography

Baku State University,Azerbaijan

Abstract

The flora of Azerbaijan and the flora of California have similar traits. The flora of Azerbaijan is rather rich.In the flora of Azerbaijan there are representatives of all the types of the areal;ancientwood,boreal plain, xerophytic,desert,caucasian and accidental. there are two types of climate -subtropical and tropical both in California

and Azerbaijan.The climate on the north of California is subtropical,on the south it is tropical.

The coastal ranges of California are dressed up to the most tops by conifers and by secvoiya.Towards the south they gradually cede the place for brushwood of bushes of the type of chaparal. On the investigated territories desert and semi-desert vegetationare observed. Vast areas of the Kura-araks,Near-caspian and other plains are covered with semi-desert of wormwood and Russian thistle while in the lower-most salinized sands and in the humid solonchaks the desert of small bushes is observed.

The alluvial soils are spread lengthways of the river's valley of California, drier parts are covered with bushes vegetation.At present natural vegetation of California valley almost doesn'tremain, because it's natural conditions are favorable for growing of subtropical crops: fruts,grapes,oranges,lemon,cotton which are wide-spread at the Kura-Arax plain.

Slopes of Sierra-Nevadas kept the natural vegetation.THeir lower parts at 1000

meter above sea level are covered with brushwoods of oak-tree and higher with

the coniferous forests of yellow pine-trees, silver-fir ,cedar and etc.

In Azerbaijan mountains of the Great and Minor Caucasus as well as in talysh at 800-1800 m above sea level broad-leaved forests occur.In the broad-leaved forests the most widely used stock is Fagus orientalis.Oak-trees just as beech ones are widely spread.

Among the conifers Pinus Eldarica and P.sosnovskyi are spread in the Repablic

Besides,such representatives of conifer as Taxus baccata occur in forests and juniper brushwood-everywhere. At the foothills of Great and Minor Caucases arid thin forests -Pistaches,juniper,pomegranate are observed.Here 6species ofjuniper are found.Separate specimens reach the heigfht of 6 to 7 meters.

THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRANSPORT SYSTEM OF AZERBAIJAN AND CALIFORNIA STATE (USA)

MESHERYAKOV JURI

third year graduate student of the Faculty of Geography

Baku State University,Azerbaijan

Abstract

Transport is one of the leading branches of materials production . It is the basis of geographical division of labour . Volume and structure of transportation , as a rule , reflects the level and structure of a economy , and geography of transports a network and loadstream show is accommodated the forces of production . Ttransport and actively influences it accommodated promoting of specialization and co-operation enterprises , branchs ,areas and countries . Thus transport serves natural continuation any process of production .

All ways of the message , enterprises of transport and means of transport in aggregate make world systems of transport .

Science-technical revolution has introduced large changes in "divide of labour" between the separate kinds of transport . Scthat "Tubifex" pull through well in saturated by a petrolium bottom mud Reisth (Reisth 1964,1970) look up presence "Capitella capitata" in the quality indicator of zones strong pollution called throw off oil refinery of factories in Losangeles's port.Large brown alagae temperate of the zone covered mucous by a film which is bad moisten by fresh liquid oil. When damp the oil has reached to coasts channel Santa-Barbara upper tier big brown alagae "Macrocystis pyriera" last protected plants and animals located below level tide up until now while tide not covered them.After bottling of a petrolium in channel Santa-Barbara heavy oil film are surrounded situated on islands the colonies sea lions "Zalophus californianus". Over 100 pups sea elephants "Mirounga angustirostris" on the island San-Mishel were pollution of petrolium Incident in Santa-Barbara descended in the period seasonal migration gray whales "Eschrichtius gloucus" whish try to avoid contact to a petrolium.

"Amthopleura xanthogrammia" rather a rack to derect to contact to a petrolium in lagoons tides of zones. Only these animals were pulled through cloused situated on sea shore California sea water body where arrived drains with great oil refinery of factory. Usually fishes find optimum on usual characteristical environment conditions and as a rule zones powerful pollution avoid.So in time crashes "Tampico Maru" close to California (North, Neushul,Clendenning,1964) majority fishes were able to leave from region located bottling of a petrolium.

Commercial catch has considerably decreased at the rezult of pollution channel Santa-Barbara, that probably was stipulated by the mainternance.

COMPARATIVE ANALUSIS OF ELEMENTAL NATURAL PHENOMENA IN AZERBAIJAN AND CALIFORNIA STATE,USA.

Muradova Tarana

third year graduate student of the Faculty of Geography

Baku State University, Azerbaijan

Abstract

The natural phenomena- it is a natural phenomenon with negative by consequence.

Anuallu the acts of nature put a large demage to an economy of any countries,

which is evaluated in some miliard dollars. There ara following kinds of lighning,

fairs, tsunami, snow avalanches and etc. have sited. In this case we shall consider the acts of nature on territories of Azerbaijan and California state andtry to give comparative analusis these of phenomena and as humanity tries to deside of these problems. On the territories of Azrebaijan and California statethere are following types of acts of nature; earthwakes, the floods, have sited hail and thunderstorm, snow avalanches, winda, tsunami.

Earthwakes; The territori of Azerbaijan is a long since differed by high seismi

icity. In the district of river Shemakha is the most seismoactive item of Caucase. Among the earthwakes of 4 jan. 1869, 1 feb. 1871, 28 jan. 1872, 13 feb.1902. Last time the strong seismoactivity in Azerbajan had been at the end of a fixing on south- eastern slope of Large Caucause, have riched force of 7-8 numbers. In a resultof earthwakes strongly failed Ismailly and many settlement item of Ismailly district.There were destroyed more than 2000 residential houses, 11 schools, some of the buildings constructions, cultural-welfare organizations and others constructions.About earthwakes which accured in Azerbaijan thre are microseimicity the itens of information, since 1139 till 20-th centuries.

The California is situated in the Pacific ocean seismic zone,which is connec ted 80 % earthwakes, which accured in our planet.The earthwakes in California are closely connected with active fault, important among of them are Garpoo, White-Wolf, Elsinor,San-Gabriel,San-Jasimo,Dewor,Welli, Haord, Calaveras, San-Andrea. During 1800-1963 in California had been 59 earthwakes with inten sivity of 7 numbersand higher. Five biggest earthwakes were differed in San-Francisco 1836,1839,1865, 1868,1906. From the moment of the occurence of city took place 12 destrouing earthwakes. From calculated material of the losses above 600 million dollars includes on California state during 1925-1971. On the Caspian sea are too observed earthwakes. Since 1955 seismic activity of Caspian strongly has grown. The repiated earthwakes took place in the seashore settlment items, the force of earthwake was reached 7 number. The Caspian earthwakes 18-19 sept.of 1961 force of 7 numbers was watched in Siasan,Nasosny,Nardaran. Given about a tsunami in California are away. The floods; The floods in the pool of the river Araks put large material

damage of many branches facilities. It permites to justify planning proctive and other hydrotechnic organization.The floods in the pool of river Arakcwere observed in 1936,1938,1946,1951,1963,1968,1969 years. In 1963 catostrophicfloods were observed in Geokchay river, Girdimanchay, on others rivers of Nakhichevan.In 1968 catostrofic flood was watched as a result of intensive snow melt and loss of storm deposits. In 1969 catostrofic flood were observed in a district of Khudaferin bridge. Were sunk settlement items. In 1988 because of largest issue of a water from Mingechaur reservoir was sunk agricultural areas Sabirabad, Neftchaly, Salian, Saatly.

California.The majority of the people live in the river plain of districts, where frequently observed the increas of river`s level, that caused floods,sometimes even catostrofic. So in 1861 the Socramento river sank 700 persons, 22-29 jan. 1969 in Southern California, number of victims were 95 , 13 march 1928 Santa-Poula 450 persons, was destroyed the dike in San-Francisco has carried away. 31 dec. 1933 in La-Cresento the flood waters were suffered downwards with adjoining slopes of San-Gabriel mountains and hurmed damage on5 mln. dollars, and sank 30 of the inhabitants. The vegetation cover of any types on catchment basin areas slow down a vate of current and that`s why present value for fighting with floods.

Stonerun : Azerbaijan is one of the most stonerun territory. Have sited differ shortlive origin, but high vates and large destroying by force. May 28,1957 as a result of heavy shower on 316 km of a line Aliyat-Norashen there were taken out not less than 35 thousand cubickm of stonerun weight.

HAILS AND THUNDERSTORM; In Azerbaijan drops out in following conditions;

1. The origin of cold front and odluzion for a type of cold western and southwestern. Covers basically the area of Small Caucause and the some distrits of Nakhichevan, Talysh. Causes have observed in 1950,1949.

2. The origin of cold front from nothern-western by entering the cold air in Azerbaijan districts from the west and east at the same time. Covers districts

of Large Caucause and the Caspian seashore. Causes; sept.30, may 29 1952, 1953

may 9 1958.

3 The entering of cold front from east. It watches on nothern slopes of Large Caucause, cases were observed in 1955,1959, 1949, 1931.

4 Output cyclone from the3 south-west and south. It is from by output cyclonein Caucause districts and Caspian. Causes in july 1951, 1950, may 23, march 27, 1952.

5 Cyclogenesis above of Caucause and Caspian. Causes in april 27 1951 the hail

has captured Agsu, Alyat, Cuba, Shemakha, Konagkend, Kedabek,Shusha,Geygel.

6. INmass prosses. Capacity convective strongly overheat of damp air. It is necssesary frecuently explore the atmosphere in each districts. The hail in may 1964, dropped out in Nagorny Karabakh has destroyed 18,7 thousand square metres of sowing, gardens and vineyards and harmed on some million rubles.

By the heavy consequenses of hail were marked in Zakataly in aprel and may 1970,

Kazakh sept. 1972. The hail in Zakataly in aprel and may 1970 destroyed signi ficant quantity of sowing. We can not to give you the date about hails in California, bacause we have not the information.

THE SNOW AVALANCHE; In Azerbaijan the avalanche are from by unsatable seam of snow on mountainouse slopes. Are allocated;

1. Sighificant. At the same time in the central Caucause there can be throw away to 500-800 thousand cubic metres of snow. Most frecuently avalanches in this districts deffer in feb.- april. It is explain by maximum accumulation of capacity snow cover with often thaw, begining melting.

2. Medlle. Takes the heavest areas on the ranges of Sm. Caucause. The reason of descent of avalanches are snowfalls and thaws, the time feb the begining of march.

3 Weak. Are located in the mountais of Sm.Caucause and Zangezur ranges on thes

slopes of ranges Shakdag and Mrovdag.

The date about the avalanches of California are away.

THE STORM; The natural phenomena concerns the strong winds with rate more than 25 metres in a second. The wind with a rate 10 and more metr in a second concern to a category of storm winds. The carrying of ice is the dangerous pnenomenon. In 1953-1954 are well known as a year of sevsre winter, when the floating ice have reached to Absheron peninsula by a very large piaces, them crashed into a small pieces for the safety of objects.Were applyed artillery and others methods. Hails and thunderstorm:In Azerbaijan drops out in folloving conditions.The origin of cold Front and the front of occluzion for a type of cold western and sourth-western.Covers basically the area of Small Caucause and the some districts of Nakhichevan, Talysh. Cthe touristic uses have observed in 1950,1949.A:taraGiven about the tsunami of California are away.

The icvease and till 1994 this rise has made 2.2 m. Under Caspian watershas remained about 800 sq.km of territories of Az.Weve sank the objects of hydrotechnik organizations, settlements, automobile and ivon vounds,agricultural areas and produktions objects. Under threat remain the sea oil and gas construction.There are assume that the change of the level of Caspian is connected by geological,climatic,hydrological,astrofisic and others prosses. In the present the humanity try by all ways to fight against of the naturar phenomena.Many countries are united and exchange expevience for joint action against natural phenomena.The majority of higher retelling cases of acts of nature obsevved on Az. territory and

California state. We hope, that the joint essorts of 2 countries will help us to prevent in a time the acts of nature is we shall exchange expierence, technology, science-exprovetian,oganize of joint conference and such way to deside these problems.

 

HISTORICO-GEGRAPHICAL ACPECTS OF OIL EXPLORATION AND ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF THE COASTAL ZONES OF THE AZERBAIJAN

AND OF THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA(USA).

Zal Gulara

third year graduate student of the Faculty of Geography

Baku State University,Azerbaijan

Abstract

California on natural to conditions basically climatic,has similar features with Azerbaijan,as middle and southern part California and Azerbaijan situated on identical parallels.This region is characterized subtropical by the climate. Except that is present row similar particular features flora and fauna in relief as well as row similar ecological problems meetings on both territories. Great roul pollution among ecological problems is playing coastal of zones.In Caspian sea as well at the sea shore California among pollution of substances the most wide-spreads are an oil and oil products.The natural outputs of a petroleum on the surface of USA were marketd yet since 1629 th year.Few from them up until now pollution coast Southern California from here so well the known cape Coul-Oil.With the purposes of nature protection and its riches long time was being to hand rent to the ground Californian sea shore for drilling here oil wells.

After this incident in channel Santa-Barbara were entered more rigid rules drilling oil wells in detail stated by Scott (Scott 1969).Filming produced after throwing out of a petroleum at the rezult crashes the channel Santa- Barbara showed that the plenties of a petroleum besieges on weighted substances one and a half of the year moved and have reached to the middle of the depth channel (Kolpack 1974).Half copies "Balanus glandula" inhabited at the coast close Santa-Barbara ,beexposed rather to the strong action spilled of a petroleum.It is known few worms are pull through in conditions oil polution Mac-Couley(McCouley 1966) has informed that oligochaeta "Tubifex" pull through well in saturated by a petroleum bottommud Reisth (Reisth 1964,1970) look up presence polychaeta "Capitella capitata"in the quality indicator of zones strong pollution called throw off oil refinery of factories in Losangeles's port.Large brown alagae temperate of the zone covered mucous by a film which is bad moisten by fresh liquid oil.

When damp the oil has reached to coasts channel Santa-Barbara upper tier big brown alagae "Macrocystis pyriera" last protected plants and animals located below level tide up until now while tide not covered them.After bottling of a petrolium in channel Santa-Barbara heavy oil film are surrounded situated on islands the colonies sea lions "Zalophus californianus". Over 100 pups sea elephants "Mirounga angustirostris" on the island San-Mishel were pollution of petrolium Incident in Santa-Barbara descended in the period seasonal migration gray whales "Eschrichtius gloucus" which moving through strongly pollution a site of a channel try to avoid contact to a petrolium. Sea anemone "Amthopleura xanthogrammia" rather a rack to derect to contact to a petrolium in lagoons tides of zones. Only these animals were pulled through cloused situated on sea shore California sea water body where arrived drains with great oil refinery of factory. Usually fishes find optimum on usual characteristical environment conditions and as a rule zones powerful pollution avoid.So in time crashes "Tampico Maru" close to California(North, Neushul,Clendenning,1964) majority fishes were able to leave from region located bottling of a petrolium. Commercial catch has considerably decreased at the rezult of pollution channel Santa-Barbara, that probably was stipulated by the mainternance.

fishes from it`s reqion As rule birds and mammals live on the land and contact with sea and consequently to move a little to the action pollutions of waters only in time of in a short period for the search stern close coast.A lot of number of these birds became a victim petroleum pollution in which connection from chronic pollution probably are killed annually more birds than durinq individual catastrophic

bottlinq.Durinq dive in a water they imperceptiblly for self come into in a layer of a petroleum which cover their head back and wings. Except that after swallowing some of quantity of a petroleum birds are lose the appetite. As known but rather essentially influences number birds and changes viability egg`s.

The majority similar problems in connection with pollution are observed and in Caspian sea.

The main sources pollution Caspian sea are rivers runolf exploration and operation sea oil fields transportation sea by a petroleum and oil products throw off pollution sewage of the waters venture oil and petrochemical industrial muncipal runofts cities and throw off of waters with agricultural lands. We shall stay on one of these aspects.

Azerbaijan began to extract a petroleum on for sale in 1871 year.For last of 120 years Azerbaijan extracted 1.325 billions of tons of a petroleum.The production of a petroleum in Caspian sea leads to its strong pollution especially in region Apsheron`s peninsula of islands Baku and Apsheron'sarchipelagoes. An oil has highly toxic connection for sea flora and fauna.At the begining of large hurting of damage to primitive a engineering and technologyOf production of a petroleum .And later on it has a rapid increase. The pressure rendered economical interests. Dangerous situations in Caspian sea arisen under influence petroleum pollution lead to change of thermal and gas exchanges between lake and atmosphere downturn biological resources and degeneration separate biocoenoses In initial period pollufion Caspian sea water organisims as well as live organisims and alagae on sea shore California were promote to liguidate separate center pollution but hereinafter because of intensification pollution they can not completely clear lakes a water from pollutions of substances. At sea organisims under the effect of pollution occur changes from the gradual reduction sizes and number up complete halt reproducion and wreck organisims Till the 1930th year in coastal zone of Apsheron peninsula inhabit a plenty crawfish ("Astacus pachypus") is possessing producers of significance. However hereinafter at the rezult oil pollution Caspian sea guantity crawfish rapid it has decreased and in present time is found in individual specimens.In the last more southern Apsheron and by south from Baku on distance 30-35 kilometers existed extesive brushwoods zoosters (Vereshagin,1946). By 1940th year brushwoods zoosters have completely disappeared becouse of oil pollution.

In general in Caspian sea revealed of 449 kinds aiagae (table 5),microbentos 566 kinds which of foraminiferida 18 kinds (table 18),306 kinds microbentos(table 20),in deep-water zones. Caspian sea dwell of 35 kinds and forms (table 32) on which also drastically influences oil pollution. Except that coast Caspian sea haslarge significance for migration's and dwell bird's.Information about birds observable on coastal to a band in desember of 1995 year showed in table 3.2.3-1 Accounts showed that each year 12000 bird's to fly across on sea shore of Caspian sea from Europe, Azia and Middle East. Therefore coastal the zone Azerbaijan is known as habitat bird's has as national as international sigificance. Also Caspian sea is habitat caspian seal ("Phoca caspica"). Seal inhabit on all territory Caspian sea and for the last 10 years their quantity on account of pollution sea intensive decreases.

At the rezult strong pollution by a petroleum and other by substances Baku a

bay and coastal city Sumgait turn into dead zones.

We would like that geographicals the faculty universities California have assisted in organized student's conferences with participation of our students. After it we can find necessary informations about Californian sea shore and reveral the most painful problems coastal of zones in both territoris and ways they decisions.

CONFERENCE DECISION

Considering resemblance of natural conditions between Azerbaijan and of south part of the California State of USA recommend continue to conduct such conference in the future.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONTENTS

PUBLIC SPACES OF THE URBAN LANDSCAPE IN CALIFORNIA AND AZERBAIJAN

Kristin Lovelace *

PREDICTIVE SOIL MAPPING IN TIJUANA RIVER WATERSHED

David Askov *

EARTHQUAKES AND EARTHQUAKE RELATED HAZARDS IN AZERBAIJAN

James R. Hotchkiss *

TRACKING INVASIVE AND EXOTIC PLANTS IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA WETLANDS USING LOW-COST HIGH RESOLUTION DIGITAL MULTISPECTRAL IMAGERY

Bruce Nyden *

SNOW AND CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE CALIFORNIA SIERRA NEVADA MOUNTAINS

Tammy Johnson *

COMPARISON OF THE WATER ENVIRONMENTS OF THE CASPIAN AND SALTON SEAS

Claudia Manrique *

ESPECIALLY PROTECTED NATURAL OBJECTS OF AZERBAYJAN AND CALIFORNIYA STATE, USA AND THE PROBLEMS OF THEIR UTILIZATION FOR THEIR PURPOSE OF REST AND TOURIZM

Guliev Fuad *

THE COMPORATIVE ANALYSIS AND THE PROBLEMS OF INTRODUCTION THE VEGETATION OF AZERBAIJAN AND CALIFORNIA STATE,USA

Kokashvili Ira *

THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRANSPORT SYSTEM OF AZERBAIJAN AND CALIFORNIA STATE (USA)

MESHERYAKOV JURI *

COMPARATIVE ANALUSIS OF ELEMENTAL NATURAL PHENOMENA IN AZERBAIJAN AND CALIFORNIA STATE,USA

Muradova Tarana *

HISTORICO-GEGRAPHICAL ACPECTS OF OIL EXPLORATION AND ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF THE COASTAL ZONES OF THE AZERBAIJAN AND OF THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA(USA

Zal GULARA *

CONFERENCE DECISION 20

 

 

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